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Wednesday, 29 June 2022

Treatment protocol and palladium system for the dengue fever in India 2022

 Treatment protocol and palladium system for the dengue fever in India 2022 

An estimated 400 million dengue infections has the worldwide each time, with about 96 million performing in the illness. Utmost all the cases do in a tropical areas of the world, with the top most threat being in 

  • The Indian key 
  • The Southeast Asia 
  • The Southern China 
  • The Taiwan 
  • The Pacific Islets 
  • The Caribbean (except the Cuba and Cayman Islets) 
  • The Mexico 
  • The Africa 
  • The South America (except the Chile, Paraguay, and Argentina) 

Utmost all the cases in the United States do in the people who contracted the infection while traveling abroad. But the threat is added for the people who are living along the Texas-Mexico border and in the other corridor of the southern United States. In the 2014, an outbreak of dengue fever was linked in the Hawaii with the other outbreaks in the 2013 in Brownsville, Texas and the Key West, Fla. 

Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue contagion. The mosquito near the infected when it bites a person with dengue virus in their blood. The dengue can be spread directly from one of the person to the another person. 

Symptoms of Dengue Fever

Symptoms, which generally begin four to the six days after the infection and last for over to 10 days, may involve the

  • Unforeseen, high fever 
  • Severe headaches 
  • Pain behind the eyes 
  • Severe joint and muscle pain 
  • Fatigue 
  • Nausea 
  • Vomiting 
  • Skin rash, which appears for two to five days after the onset of the fever 
  • Mild bleeding (such as nose bleed, bleeding epoxies, or the easy bruising) 

Occasionally, the symptoms are mild and can be incorrect for those of the flu or the another viral infection. Youngish children and the people who have no way had the infection before tend to have the milder cases than the aged children and the grown-ups. Still, the serious problems can develop. These involve the dengue hemorrhagic fever, a rare complication characterized by the high fever, damage to the lymph and the blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and the epoxies, blowup of the liver, and the failure of the circulatory system. The symptoms may progress to the massive bleeding, shock, and the death. This is recognize as "Dengue Shock Syndrome" (DSS). 

People with the weakened vulnerable systems as well as those with a alternate or a posterior dengue infection believed to be at a lesser threat for developing the dengue hemorrhagic fever. 


Diagnosing Dengue Fever 

Objector can diagnose the dengue infection with a blood test to check for the contagion or antibodies to it.However, let your croaker know, If you can come sick after the traveling to a tropical area. This will allow your objector to estimate the possibility that your symptoms were caused by a dengue infection. 

Treatment for Dengue Fever 

There is no specific drug to treat dengue infection.However, you should use the pain relievers with the acetaminophen and avoid the drugs with aspirin, which could worsen the bleeding, If you suppose that you may have dengue fever. You should also rest, drink plenitude of the fluids, and see your doctor.However, you should get to a sanitarium in worldwide to be checked for the complications, If you start feelin worse within the first 24 hours after your fever goes down. 

Precluding Dengue Fever 

The best way to help the complaint is to help the mouthfuls by the infected mosquitoes, particularly if you are living in or traveling to a tropical area. This include guarding by yourself and making the sweats to keep the mosquito population down. In the 2019, the FDA approved a vaccine called Dengvaxia to help the complaint from being in the adolescents progressed 9 to 16 who have formerly been infected by the dengue. But, there presently is no vaccine to help the general population from contracting it. 

  • To cover yourself 
  • Use mosquito repellents, indeed outdoors. 
  • When going outside, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants partake into socks. 
  • When the indoors, use air exertion if it is available. 
  • Make sure the window and the door defenses are secure and free of the holes.However, use mosquito nets, If sleeping areas are not screened or air conditioned. 
  • Still, speak to your objector, If you have symptoms of dengue. 

Key facts

  • Dengue is a viral infection transmitted to the humans through the bite of the infected mosquitoes. The primary vectors that transmit the disease are the Aedes ,aegypti mosquitoes and to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus.
  • The virus is responsible for causing the dengue, is called by the dengue virus (DEN V). There are the four DEN V stereotypes and it is possible to be infected for four times.
  • While many DEN V infections produce only mild illness, DEN V can cause the acute flu-like illness. Occasionally this develops into a potentially lethal complication, called the severe dengue.
  • There is not a specific treatment for the dengue/severe dengue. Early detection of the disease progression associated with the severe dengue, and access to the proper medical care lowers fatality rates of the severe dengue to below 1%.

  • The global incidence of the dengue has grown dramatically with about the half of the world's population now at risk. Although an  estimated 100-400 million infections occur each year, over the 80% are generally mild and asymptomatic.
  • Dengue prevention and the control depends on the effective vector control the measures. Sustained the community involvement can improve the vector control efforts substantially.


Transmission through mosquito bite 

The contagion is transmitted to the humans through the mouthfuls of the infected womanish mosquitoes, primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Other species within the Aedes rubric can also act as the vectors, but their donation is a secondary to the Aedes aegypti. 

 After feeding on an DEN V-infected person, the contagion replicates in the mosquito mid gut, before it disseminates to the secondary apkins, including the salivary glands. The time it takes from ingesting the contagion to the factual transmission to a new host is nominated for the foreign incubation period (EIP). The EIP takes about the 8-12 days when the ambient temperature is between the 25-28 °C (4-6). Variations in the foreign incubation period are not only told by the ambient temperature; a number of the factors similar as the magnitude of the diurnal temperature oscillations (7, 8), contagion genotype (9), and the original viral attention (10) can also alter the time it takes for a mosquito to transmit the contagion. Once the contagious, the mosquito is able to transmitting the contagion for the rest of its life. 

Mortal- to-mosquito transmission 


Mosquitoes can come infected from people who are viremic with the DEN V. This can be someone who has a characteristic of dengue infection, someone who is  yet to have a characteristic of infection (they arepre-symptomatic), but also the people who shows no signs of the illness as well as (they can  be asymptomatic) (11). 

Mortal-to-mosquito transmission can do up to the 2 days before someone shows the symptoms of the illness (5, 11), up to 2 days after the fever has resolved (12). 

Threat of the mosquito infection is appreciatively associated with the high viremia and the high fever in the case; again, high situations of the DEN V-specific antibodies are associated with the dropped threat of the mosquito infection (Nguyen etal. 2013 PNAS). best people are the viremic for about the 4-5 days, but the viremia can last as long as for 12 days (13). 


There is not a specific treatment for the dengue fever. Cases should rest, stay doused and seek for the medical advice. Depending on the clinical instantiations and the other circumstances, cases may be transferred to the home, and be appertained for the in-sanitarium operation, or bear the exigency treatment and the critical referral (25). 

Probative care similar as fever reducers and the pain killers can be taken to control the symptoms of  the muscle pangs and pains, and the fever. 

The best options to treat these type of symptoms are acetaminophen or paracetamol. 

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines), similar as ibuprofen and aspirin should be avoided. These Anti-inflammatory medicines act by the lacing of blood, and in a complaint with the threat of the hemorrhage, the blood thinners may complicate the prognostic. 

For the severe dengue, medical care by the croakers and nursers endured with the goods and the progression of the complaint can save lives – dwindling mortality rates to the lower than the 1 in the maturity of the countries. 

 Vaccination against dengue 

 The top dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia ® (CYD-TDV) developed by the Sanofi Pasteur was certified in December 2015 and has now been approved by the non supervisory authorities in 20 countries. In November 2017, the results of the fresh analysis to retrospectively determine sero status at the time of the vaccination were released. The analysis showed that the subset of the trial actors who were inferred to be sero negative at the time of the first vaccination had a advanced threat of more than severe dengue and hospitalizations from the dengue compared to the unvaccinated actors. As similar as, use of the CYD-TDV vaccine is targeted for the persons living in the aboriginal areas, 9-45 times of the age, who have had at least 1 reason for the dengue contagion infection in the history. 


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